031913: Bloom’s Taxonomy and Kohlberg’s Moral Development

Bloom’s Taxonomy which was discussed today was the first time I heard this topic. As we all know, taxonomy is a branch of science about classifications. But in Bloom’s Taxonomy, it is the classification of learning objectives within education. This theory defines three educational domains which are also greatly used the development domains of the child. These are Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. As we all know, Cognitive is the mental skills and dwell well with knowledge, Affective is the development in emotional aspect or attitude and Psychomotor is the manual, practical, and physical skills. In the cognitive domain, the group discussed a structure where there are categorizes that should be achieved first before passing to the next category. There are two versions but if you will look closely to it, it has the same categories except the last two top categories. I will discuss the newer version. Remembering is when a person recalls data or information. This can also be when an individual defines and describes the data s/he gathered. Next is Understanding, also called as Comprehension to the old version. Understanding is when an individual can explain his/her own self the meaning, translation, interpolation and interpretation of instruction. He/she can state problems and solutions on his/her own words. Applying is the part when a person understands the process; she/he can apply it when he/she is going to face the same situation as he/she understood or learned. After applying the knowledge, he/she can analyze on his/her own and can distinguish between facts and interference. In this category, a person is more capable of organizing and disseminating his/her knowledge. After analysis, a person can now master evaluation where he/she can decide on her own and can make judgments about the value of ideas. And lastly, he/she can create and build his/her own thoughts and actions to certain situations. I guess, the reason why evaluation goes first before creating because it is the step where the individual can assess and filter the process which means that there can be changes through the process of evaluation that is why after filtering the knowledge, he/she can now create new knowledge that he/she can pass through also.

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From: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/misc/2008/blooms_old.png

The next topic was the Kohlberg’s Moral Development. There are three levels of moral development and these are Pre-conventional, Conventional and Post-conventional. Per levels, there are sub stages of each. The Level 1, also known as the Pre-conventional level has the first two stages. Stage 1 is about obedience and punishment driven. It is knowing what is the basic right and wrong. Wrong is usually punishable and the person’s tendency is to be guided by its moral action which is essentially always towards avoidance of punishment. Stage 2 is more on self-interest driven. The rights and wrongs are determined by what brings rewards to people and what people personally want. Other people’s interests are also included but only in a reciprocal manner. Level 2 is called the Conventional level. It also has two stages. Stage 3 is all about “interpersonal accord and conformity driven”. An individual follows norms because he/she will be labeled as a good person by his/her own and by the eyes of others. It is what the majority thinks is right is right by definition. This is basically deciding and following what is right because it is right. Stage 4 is more of authority and social order obedience driven. Here, being moral is ‘doing one’s duty’-showing respect for authority and laws and maintaining peace and order to the society. Laws are fully accepted and obeyed without any questions or arguments. The last level is called the Post-conventional Level. Stage 5 is social contract driven. At this stage, an individual has his/her own opinions and values to shares. An individual looks at the laws as should be respected but an individual also has the rights to supersede these laws if there come a time that it would be destructive or restrictive. Last is Stage 6 or the universal ethical principles driven. They say if a person reaches the last stage, he/she is probably reached the highest moralization and self actualization in values and morality. Stage 6 is when moral action is determined by an individual’s inner conscience. Moral reasoning is based on his/her own perspectives, views and moral decisions using universal ethical principles and laws and norms cannot define a person and affect its moral decisions and obligations.

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From: http://abagond.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/kohlberg.png

If I were asked if what level of Moral Development I am now being an 18 years old lady, I would say, I am still at the Conventional level, stage 4.I still tend to be following the laws and obeying them without questions being asked because I believe that that will be the answer for social order in the society. Though I have my own opinions and decisions in my life, but when it comes to the larger unit, I tend to follow on what I think is right. This does not mean that I do not know how to stand on my own words but because I believe that at my age, I still choose to follow what is needed to be followed and it is important for me the maintenance of social order in my community. I still believe that in the years to come, I will be able to reach the highest moral development according to Kohlberg. But as of now, I would stay with the Conventional stage, level 4.

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031413: Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System

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From: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/figures/1471-2458-8-223-1-l.jpg

Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory is closed to me because it is the foundation of my previous course in UP Los Banos which is BS Human Ecology. Human Ecology is an interdisciplinary approach of the relationship between an individual to its environment and vice versa. Urie Bronfenbrenner believes that the development of an individual reflects the influence of several environmental systems. He gave different ecological systems and these are Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Let us first talk about the Microsystem. It is the system which refers to the institutions that has direct impact to the person’s development. My microsystem would be my relationship with my parents, siblings, college and high school friends. Mesosystem refers to the relationship between the previous system between contexts. My mesosystem is when I have problems at home, for example my parents scolded me because I did not follow my curfew and I cried all night, the next day I cannot perform well in my studies because I am still affected to what happened. Both family institutions/experiences and school institutions/experiences are affected to what happened to me. The next system is the Exosystem. Exosystem refers to the links between a social setting in which an individual does not have a direct role but still gets affected to it. An example to this is when my mother has a problem in her work and when she comes home, she will get mad at us and bring her bad vibes home which will affect the relationship of us and my siblings and father. Macrosystem describes the culture and norms in which individual lives. Not only a specific individual are in the Macrosystem but also his/her parents, families, school, parent’s workplaces and all part of a large cultural context which share common norms, values and heritage. For example, a child was born in a poor family; he/she would strive harder and study better to be able to give her/his family a good life after studying. And lastly, Chronosystem is the event when there are transitions and shifts in one’s lifespan. One known example is when a couple had a divorce which not only affects the life of them both but also the permanent life of their children, the children’s workplace, schools, and peers. This can have a positive and negative approach, depends on how the person embraces it. 

030713: Assimilation, Accommodation and Equilibrium

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From: http://static.toondoo.com/public/a/l/y/alyons//toons/cool-cartoon-3732761.png

Today, our class defined terms of Jean Piaget’s views in the intellectual growth of individuals. We also had a mind game which was really fun and exciting. The reporters grouped the class and gave us small papers each which serve as clues for the Murder Scene Mind Game. It was one of the interesting ice breakers because it does not just made us thinking but also built cooperative learning in pushing and achieving one goal; to solve the Murder Problem. As said a while ago, we defined terms of Jean Piaget’s view of intellectual growth. Intellectual growth is also viewed as a process of adaptation of an individual which happens through assimilation, accommodation and equilibrium. But first, let us discuss what Schema means. It is an organized mental codification of experiences which responds to a set of schema and complex situations. Assimilation is when an individual uses existing schema to deal with new situation. An example is when a toddler sees an old man who is bald at the top of his head and has frizzy hair on his side hair, the toddler shouts “A clown! Clown!” and continues to scream. She uses her old knowledge about the familiar image she saw and recalls it and thought that it is the same as the new image she just saw. Accommodation, on the other hand, is the process when an individual has to deal with the change of the new situation when existing knowledge does not work. An example, after the toddler’s father heard what his child said, he talked to his son and said that even though the old man has the same hair as the clown, it does not mean that he is also a clown because the old man is not wearing any fancy costumes and make up and does not perform funny and silly activities like the clowns. Because of this new schema or new knowledge given by his father, the toddler modified his term of a clown and he did not call the old man a clown already. The last term to define was Equilibrium. Equilibrium is the driving force which makes individual to not be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge and schema. According to the reporters, once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time he/she needs to make an adjustment to it. I also learned that equilibrium mediates between the assimilation and accommodation and the process is a cycle which means the newer schemes always goes to the process of assimilation then accommodation.

030513: Constructivism

Constructivism is a theory to explain how knowledge is created in an individual when information comes into contact with existing knowledge that had been developed by experiences. I had many encounters already with this theory and I knew that there are many theorists who have the same principles as the Constructivism and the most famous are John Dewey, Maria Montessori, Lev Vygotsky, and Jean Piaget. In Constructivism, learners are active in constructing their own knowledge and also, social interactions are important in the knowledge construction process. The reporters did not just discuss what Constructivism means. They also tackled about the positive and negative side of a constructivist learner. Its pros are students are actively involved in the learning process and its learning environment is democratic which means a lot can contribute to an individual’s knowledge construction process. Because of this, the activities are interactive and student-centered while the teachers are the ones who facilitate the activities and class. The learner is also self-directed, innovative and creative in gaining knowledge. What is negative about Constructivism is that unlike other methods/theories, it lacks structure which means the children are free to do what they want and direct their selves whatever they want. The teacher discards the standard-use of curriculums and students may not be creating knowledge but just copying what others might be doing.

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From: http://constructingmodernknowledge.com/cmk08/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/vertical-CMK-logo.png

What I like about Constructivism is that an individual learns through his/her own discovery, hands-on, and experiential. If there’s a proper guidance and support from the facilitators, the children under Constructivism would develop in their best way possible.

022813: Gestalt and Gagne

The class tackled two topics today: Gestalt psychology and Condition of Learning by Robert Gagne. These topics are familiar to me because I took this up when I had my Psych 101 and these were ones of the interesting lessons in Psychology as I remembered. Gestalt psychology’s major definition is “whole > the sum of parts” which means that people tend to look to the whole image rather than looking at its parts. This is an efficient use of limited cognitive resource and the natural tendency of a human to organize things and “fill in the gaps”. The reporter showed different sample pictures to tickle our minds which are really mind blowing. He mentioned six principles which are: Law of proximity, symmetry, closure, law of similarity, continuity, and figure ground. When the reporter showed different images regarding each principle, some of us have same interpretations and some of have different imaginations towards the photos. It is quite interesting seeing each of us having a say and trying out what we can see in the photos showed. To conclude the definition of Gestalt psychology, an individual first sees the object in the entire and holistic perspective before looking at their individual parts.

 

Condition of Learning by Robert Gagne was the next topic of the day. Gagne’s theory says that there are several different types of learning. He identifies five major categories of learning: (a) intellectual skills which are discrimination, concrete concepts, defined concept, rule and higher-order rule, (b) cognitive strategy, (c) verbal information (labels and facts, bodies of knowledge), (d) person’s attitude, and (e) his/her motor skills. The reporter also gave interesting ice breakers and games which made us students understand the lessons more.

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From: http://blog.albumepoca.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/gestalt_e_grafica_il_valore_della_percezione_dello_spazio_1.jpg

022113: Information Processing Theory

How do people get the information and process it to be able to use it? Today, we discussed how that happens with the help of Information Processing Theory. Information Processing Theory greatly compares human brain to computers. It means that our cognitive skills and how human brain works are like hoe computer functions. This theory has three major components which are (a) Sensory Memory, (b) Working Memory and (c) Long-Term Memory. Sensory and Working Memory basically handles the limited amounts of incoming information during the processing while Long-Term Memory serves as “a permanent repository for knowledge.” Unlike the first two stages of memory, Long-Term Memory is not limited with respect to capacity and duration. After this day, I understand why not everything I learned from school is I cannot remember or recall. Some of the information was stuck in the Working Memory and without rehearsal and frequently practice, recall or study that information expired. I know understand that I have to adjust and change my study habits wherein I can stay all the information to my Long-Term Memory, not just in my Short-Term Memory.

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From: http://www.smartgirl.org/brain-food/career-hubs/human-computer-interaction.png

021913: Socio-Cultural Theory

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From: http://www.earthtimes.org/newsimage/people-and-the-planet_26412.jpg

The next topic is another continuation of the Social Learning Theory and the Social Cognitive Theory which is the Lev Vygotsky’s Socio-Cultural Theory. The difference of Socio-Cultural Theory to the previous theories is that environment or the individual’s surroundings is also one of the big factors in learning; not just an individual’s way of thinking or an individual’s interaction to their models. Also, it tackles a large scope because it covers all the domains of development unlike Social Learning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory; it only discusses the cognitive domain of an individual. Another important key in Vygotsky’s theory is the Zone of Proximal Development. Zone of Proximal Development is between what the student already knows and what the student is not yet ready to learn or still not able to learn. The manage the gap of it, guidance from the teachers, parents, and peers or also known as the more knowledgeable other would be a great help for an individual’s development. What is Socio-Cultural Theory’s similarity to other previous theory? It is the recognition of more knowledgeable others to the development of an individual who guide, lead, and support the development of an individual to each maximum potential.